Results from the oxidation of ethanol (alcohol) to acetic acid (the acid component of vinegar), which is then transformed by the acetic bacteria to an ester called ethyl acetate. The prevalent characteristic is an odor of vinegar and a bitter, dry taste.
The transformation of reductive sugars into alcohol (essentially ethanol) by fermentation yeast (mostly saccharomyces cerevisae). There is also a production of carbon dioxide during the alcoholic fermentation.
which secure oxygen and protect wine from the problems of exposure to oxygen (oxidation). Sulfur is used for its anti-oxidative qualities, as is ascorbic acid, the latter being reserved for the bottling.